Health Promotion & Knowledge Management

Creating Awareness on Health Effects of Fast food

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Diabetes

 Diabetes

What is diabetes?

Diabetes mellitus is a condition where the body cannot maintain normal blood glucose levels. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body. Glucose is made by the breakdown of carbohydrate.

Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose move from the blood into the cells. When the body does not produce enough insulin, the cells cannot use glucose and the blood glucose level rises.

Three main types of diabetes affect Australians:

o       Type 1 (previously known as insulin-dependent diabetes)

Type 1 diabetes is characterised by a complete deficiency of insulin, the hormone that helps glucose move from the blood into the cells. People with type 1 diabetes require insulin therapy to control their blood glucose levels. This is given by injection.

The clinical onset of type 1 diabetes is usually quite sudden, but may be gradual in adults and in some children. Onset can be triggered by environmental factors such as viruses, diet or chemicals in people genetically predisposed.

o       Type 2 (previously known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes)

Type 2 diabetes results from reduced production of insulin or the inability of the body to use insulin properly. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the onset of Type 2 diabetes. The major risk factors include:

  • increasing age
  • excess weight
  • physical inactivity
  • poor diet and nutrition
  • impaired glucose tolerance

Type 2 diabetes is always initially treated by dietary changes, weight loss (if appropriate), and attention to lifestyle issues such as exercise and cessation of smoking. If blood sugar is not controlled, then tablets or insulin injections may be needed to lower blood glucose

o       Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)

Gestational diabetes mellitus is a type of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy. About 4-6% of Australian women not previously known to have diabetes develop gestational diabetes mellitus during pregnancy. Risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus include:

  • family history of diabetes
  • increasing maternal age
  • obesity
  • being from particular population groups with a high prevalence of diabetes

Diabetes affects an estimated 940,000 people, and about half of these are not aware they have the disease. If undetected or poorly controlled, diabetes can lead to blindness, kidney failure, lower limb amputation, heart attack, stoke and impotence.

Sources:http://www.healthinsite.gov.au/topics/Diabeteshttp://www.health.gov.au/internet/wcms/Publishing.nsf/Content/pq-diabetes-what-type1http://www.health.gov.au/internet/wcms/Publishing.nsf/Content/pq-diabetes-what-type2http://www.health.gov.au/internet/wcms/Publishing.nsf/Content/pq-diabetes-what-gest

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